The published specifications for small UPS products are represented in slightly different ways by each UPS manufacturer, to highlight advantages and minimize weaknesses, and often a complete specification is not given. Because an UPS user may not understand many of the terms used to specify UPS equipment, there is a risk that a mistake will be made in the selection of a UPS. As a tool to understand these specifications, the sample spec sheet for a single phase UPS will used. Each entry will be addressed separately.

Sample Single Phase UPS Specification
UPS
Output:
Specification
Voltage 120Vac
Regulation ± 3%
Frequency 60Hz nominal,
synchronized,
± 0.05% in battery
mode
Power Rating 1000VA
Load Power Factor 0.6
Load Crest Factor 3:1
Transfer Time 5 milliseconds
Current 8.3 Amps
Overload Capability 150%
Waveform Sine-wave
Distortion < 3% for non-linear
loads
Transient Regulation ± 5%
for a 100% step load change
UPS
Input
 
Voltage 120V
Voltage Range +10%, -15%
Frequency 60Hz
Maximum Current 12.8 Amps
Power Factor 0.9
UPS
Battery
 
Type Sealed lead-acid,
maintenance free
Rating 12V, 7AH
Number of Cells 3
Diagnostics Periodic automatic
test
Autonomy Time 10 minutes at
full load
Recharge Time 20 times the
outage to 90% capacity.
Overall
System
 
Architecture Fault-tolerant,
Double Conversion, On-Line, Modular
Configuration Single-Phase
Input and Output
Bypass Automatic operation
Efficiency 85%
Operation Fully Automatic
or Manual Operation,
Control Panel/Metering LED Display,
Button Controls, No Metering
Diagnostics &
Self Test
Self test on
startup and periodically

 

 

Communications

 
User Interface RS232 port and
Novell style contacts
Networks Via an Ethernet
or Token Ring adapter
SNMP Via an SNMP adapter
Modem Via a modem adapter
Mechanical  
Input Hardwired
Output Hardwired
Weight 15.8 kg (35 lbs)
Dimensions (LxWxH) 499 x 134 x 226
mm (19.6 x 5.3 x 8.9 inches)
Environmental  
Audible Noise < 50 dBA
Operating Temperature 0° C to 40° C
Storage Temperature – 20° C to + 60° C
Relative Humidity 5 – 95% non-condensing
Altitude 1000m without
derating
Safety UL 1778
EMC – Emissions FCC Class A
EMC – Immunity Not Applicable
Surge Suppression IEEE 587 (ANSI
C62.41)
CMNR > 60dB
TMNR > 80dB
Packaging No CFC’s,
Recyclable
Options  
Battery Packs Battery Modules
and special long autonomy solutions
Maintenance Bypass  
Galvanic Isolation  
UPS Output Specifications
Voltage The UPS output
voltage must match the requirement of the load. In North America
this voltage is 120Vac, in most of Europe 230Vac is used and
the rest of the world is 220Vac.
Regulation The regulation
specification is the maximum expected deviation for the normal
output voltage (e.g. 120Vac) that is expected over the entire
range of operating conditions (e.g. load, temperature, altitude).
For Off-Line systems the regulation spec refers to the battery
backup mode. For On-Line systems the spec is normally
± a few percent an is valid for both the
normal and battery backup modes.
Frequency The frequency
of the UPS output must match the requirements of the load. Switch-mode
power supplies have a wide (47 – 63 Hz) range to be able to operate
from either 50 or 60Hz. Other loads may require either 50 or
60Hz.
Power Rating To completely
specify a UPS, both the Volt-Ampere (VA) and wattage (Watts)
rating must be known. See the section on “Understanding
Watts, VA and Power Factor” for an in-depth explanation.
Load Power
Factor
A power factor
(p.f.) in the 0.6 to 0.8 range is typical. A p.f. rating of 0.6
to 0.7 is good for a switch-mode power supply. A p.f of 0.8 is
typical for older UPS equipment designs used before the widespread
used of computers.
UPS Output Specifications
Distortion If the UPS has
a sine-wave output a distortion figure indicates how good the
wave shape is. A typical distortion value is 3% for linear loads
and 5% for non-linear load.
Transient
Regulation
When a load is
added or removed the UPS inverter has to adjust. The maximum
amount the output voltage deviates from the nominal value indicates
the transient regulation. If the voltage deviates too much, some
loads will fail.
UPS Battery Specifications
Type The most common
battery used in UPS equipment is a sealed, lead-acid, maintenance
free type. Ni-Cad (Nickel-Cadmium) batteries are a more expensive
option. Large UPS systems often use wet, lead-acid storage batteries.
Rating Batteries are
rated by specifying an open circuit DC voltage and a Ampere-Hour
(AH) rating.
Load Crest Factor Most loads used in modern equipment, including computers, require a peak current that is much higher than what is required by a simple load such as a light bulb. The UPS must be able to supply this peak current. The Load Crest Factor is the ratio of the peak to the average (RMS) current.
 

 

Figure 1. Crest Factor Waveform Illustration
 
Transfer Time

In an On-Line system the transfer time refers to a change from the bypass source to the UPS and vise-versa. A typical time is ¼ of a cycle or about 5-6 milliseconds.

In an Off-Line system the transfer time refers to the change from the utility source to the inverter when there is a power outage and is about 5 to 10 milliseconds.

Current The output current refers to the maximum current available at the normal output voltage.
Overload Capability If more load is added to a UPS and the new total is more than the rating, the UPS must be able to continue to function. At typical Overload specification is 1.25% for 10 minutes or 150% for 1 minute.
Waveform Not all UPS products have a sine-wave output and most modern loads do not require a perfect sine-wave source. Lower cost UPS equipment will have a quasi square-wave or a step sine-wave output waveform.
UPS Input Specifications
Voltage The input voltage specification is the nominal voltage the UPS expects to see on its input.
Voltage Range All UPS products are designed to operate over a range of input voltages. A typical range is +10% to -15% or 102Vac to 132Vac for North America or 196Vac to 253Vac for Europe.
Frequency Modern UPS equipment will operate on either 50 or 60Hz as long as the voltage is within the specified limits. Some UPS equipment is designed to operate only on 50 or 60Hz.
Maximum Current The maximum current occurs when the UPS is fully loaded and the input voltage is at the minimum allowed for normal operation (usually about -15%).
Power Factor The UPS input is a load on the utility power source. The UPS input power factor (p.f.) varies with how much load is on the output of the UPS and in modern UPS equipment is 0.9 or better. In large UPS equipment (e.g. 25kVA) the input power factor could be a very important part of the overall system design. In small UPS equipment, power factor is usually not a concern unless many units are being installed.

 

 

To simplify power calculations in an AC system, a technical term called the power factor (p.f.) is used. The power factor is a number between 0.0 and 1.0 representing the fraction of the total power delivered by the AC source which is consumed by the load to do work. Mathematically, power factor is defined as:

 abbreviated as p.f.

UPS Battery Specifications
Number of
Cells
Battery cells
are normally connected in series to form a string. Often battery
strings are connected in parallel.
Diagnostics The battery is
the weakest link in a UPS system. Automatic checking and diagnostics
of battery problems is now common in UPS products. Testing must
not put the load in jeopardy.
No. of Modules

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12
Load1

Battery Autonomy
Time Estimate (Minutes)
400
VA

18.5

30

43

52

66

70

73

77

81

84

91
800
VA
 

11

15

21

28

35

42

49

53

56

63
1200
VA
   

10

12

15

19

24

27

33

38

42
1600
VA
     

9

11

13

15

19

21

24

29
2000
VA
       

9

10

12

14

15

18

21
2400
VA
         

9

10

11

12

14

15
2800
VA
           

9

10

10.5

11

12
3200
VA
             

8

9

10

11
3600
VA
               

8

9

10
4000
VA
                 

8

9
4400
VA
                   

8
Sample Battery Autonomy Chart
Autonomy TimeThe
autonomy time is specified at full load so normally more time
is actually available because a UPS is normally not loaded to
100% of capacity.
Recharge Time After a power
failure, the battery will have to be recharged. Typically it
takes 20 times the discharge time to recharge a battery to 90%
of its capacity.
Overall System Specifications

Figure 2 True On-Line UPS in Normal Model

Overall System Specifications
Architecture The architecture
of the UPS specifies if it is fault-tolerant, redundant, single
or double conversion, etc. Some common architectures are Off-Line,
Line-Interactive, True On-Line and Fault-tolerant.
Configuration Configuration
specifies the number of input and output phases. Low power UPS
equipment will be one phase input and output. Larger equipment
will have three phases for both the input and output. In the
mid range, three phase input with a single phase output is used.
Bypass A bypass specification
is given for True On-Line UPS products. The bypass circuitry
operates automatically when needed. In larger UPS equipment it
is normally possible to manually override the automatic operation.
Both relay and static bypass circuits are common and offer ¼
cycle (4-6 mS) transfer times, which is adequate for most applications.

Figure 2 shows a typical single phase configuration using a double conversion true On-Line configuration. The bypass path is shown.

Efficiency In a low power
UPS, the efficiency is not big concern. In larger power ratings,
a more efficient UPS saves on operating costs. Because Off-Line
units only have to trickle charge the battery, the can be 97%
efficient or better. On-Line UPS units will be 80 to 90% efficient
in low an medium power designs and up to 94% efficient in large
(>500kVA) models.
Operation Most currently
available UPS equipment is designed to be “plug and play,”
which means as soon as power is applied, it starts automatically.
Older and big UPS equipment requires commissioning and a controlled
start up procedure.
Control Panel/Metering All UPS equipment
has a control panel to indicate the UPS is operating normally
or in a fault condition. Where required metering is available
as either a standard or optional feature.
Diagnostics
& Self Test
Modern UPS
equipment will do a self-test each time it is powered up, periodically
and when requested to do so. Diagnostic information is stored
and available via display and RS-232 communications.
Mechanical Specifications
Input To supply
power to the UPS input, a power cord is normally used. If the
maximum input current is above 10 Amps, hardwired terminal connections
are normally used.
Output The UPS will
normally have country specific power outlets or 10 Amp IEC 320
outlets. If the maximum output current is above 10 Amps, hardwired
terminal connections are used.
Weight The weight
is self explanatory.
Dimensions
(LxWxH)
The Dimensions
are self explanatory.
Communications Specifications
User Interface The most common user interface is a set of two contacts that are Novell compatible. More expensive units will have an RS-232 port for use with software that controls, monitors and automatically and safely shuts down a server or workstation.
Networks The two common ways to interface the UPS to a network are 1) via an Ethernet or Token Ring adapter and 2) via special software on a computer that is connected to both the network and the UPS.

 

 

Figure 2 Typical Network to UPS Connection
 
SNMP An special adapter is needed to connect the UPS to a network running SNMP (Simple Network Management Protocol).
Modem The RS-232 port can be connected to a model which will allow dialing out and receiving calls to check the UPS status and to control the UPS.
Environmental Specifications
Audible Noise An audible noise figure of 50dBA or less is acceptable for most office environments. Larger UPS units, designed for installation in equipment rooms might have an audible noise figure of up to 70dBA
Operating Temperature Normally the operating temperature is 0° C to 40° C.
Storage Temperature The normal temperature range for storage is – 20° C to + 60° C. If the battery is internal to the UPS, this storage range may not be appropriate without causing damage to the battery.
Relative Humidity The standard relative humidity specification is up to 95% with out condensation.
Altitude The thinner air at high altitudes is not as effective at cooling electrical equipment. A limit on altitude is specified to guarantee operation at 40° C. If the maximum temperature is limited to less than the 40 degree limit, the UPS can be operated at higher altitudes.
 
   

 

Figure 3 Sample derating curve for high altitude.
   
Safety The safety standard for UPS equipment in the US is UL 1778. In Europe the equivalent standard is EN 50091-1.
Environmental Specifications
EMC – Emissions All UPS equipment
in the US must meet FCC Class A and UPS models designed specifically
for office environments must meet FCC Class B. In Europe CISPR
22 Class B is required for office environments and Class A is
acceptable for industrial environments.
EMC – Immunity There are
no immunity requirements in the US. In Europe immunity is covered
by the generic standard, EN50082 and EN50091-2.
Surge Suppression Surge testing
to ANSI C62.41 (formerly IEEE 587) is standard in high quality
UPS equipment.
CMNR The Common
Mode Noise Reduction, (CMNR) capability of a UPS is not something
that one should normally be worried about. The CMNR value varies
with frequency and cannot be understood unless a graph over a
frequency range is given.
TMNR The Transverse
Mode Noise Reduction capability of a UPS varies with the architecture
used. A True On-Line UPS gives the best TMNR performance. Like
CMNR, TMNR varies with frequency.
Packaging In Europe,
the packaging of modern UPS equipment must be recyclable. The
process of making the UPS, including the shipping box, must not
use CFCs.
Options
Battery Packs Small modular
UPS equipment will have expansion battery packs to add autonomy
time.
Maintenance
Bypass
A maintenance
bypass allows removal of a UPS or repair and test of a UPS while
the critical load is operating from the bypass source.
Galvanic Isolation An isolation
transformer provides galvanic Isolation and is normally not needed.
In special cases where galvanic isolation is required, it can
be added as an accessory to the UPS or as a locally purchased
item.